As I look at different aspects related to history and our everyday lives, I would say that violence is a part of human nature. In fact, it is in our nature to be competitive when we play sports with contact like football, hockey, rugby, boxing, martial arts, wrestling, etc. As a human, we enjoy watching, listening, and reading violence through books, movies, tv shows, music, etc. In reality, violence is something we enjoy naturally since we are born. For example, when a young infant plays with his doll, he has the tendency to hit the doll against the ground or punching the doll. Even if the toddler is not conscious of what violence really is, he still enjoys exercising it against his toys. Violence followed us through our behavior, especially when we get angry. There are chemicals released naturally when you get mad which makes you want to punch a wall or someone for example. Also, a lot of human beings enjoy hunting animals like a bird, moose, duck, rabbit, bear, whales, Fox, and others. Furthermore, violence was present in our history through wars like the First World War and Second World War. In our history, we did and still use violence to accomplish what we want. As an example, during the Middle Ages, kingdoms like France, England, and Scotland were fighting to expand their territories through wars. Also, they were using different tortures to punish people for crimes they commit. Kings would enjoy using violence and death penalty to condemned their prisoners. In Greece during Cesar’s reign, battles to death would occur in the Rome Coliseum where the crowd would enjoy seeing blood and violence through those fights. In summary, Violence was present since the beginning of our existence.
Back in 2010, I watch the movie Dear John, who is based on Nicholas Sparks Book. Nicholas Sparks is a brilliant author who makes us believe that love is so beautiful when it is reciprocal. While I read the book, I realize that the movie is in some way different from the novel. The plot stays the same, but a couple of little differences can be seen in the movie from the novel.
In the novel In the movie
There are more difference betweens both the movie and the novel, but I find the movie way better in a certain way because Channing Tatum is one of my favorite actors and also there psychological components such as autism spectrum disorder. War is also one of the themes in both the book and the movie which is one theme that interested me. Moreover, Nicholas Sparks is a smart and brilliant author who makes us believe that love can be beautiful even though pain can occur in it.
Violence is still to this day a worldwide problem that several countries have difficulty managing. Wars, crimes, and terrorist attacks are proof that violence plays a meaningful role in today’s society. In Stephen King’s novella, Everything’s Eventual, violence is one of the main components that Dinky, the main character, is constantly faced with. Does violence have a significant impact on Dinky’s life in this novella? Violence has a pretty crucial impact on Dinky’s life as he uses it as a livelihood and as a way of gaining a sense of belonging.
Throughout the novella, Everything’s Eventual, violence has significant repercussions in changing Dinky’s lifestyle. According to King, “Driving for Pizza Roma was the lowest point, I think. Since then I’ve even had a ride in a private jet, so how could things be bad?” (254) Previously, Dinky had been working in pretty bad conditions at Pizza Roma as a pizza delivery man. Now that he has met Mr. Sharpton, Dinky has improved his way of living as well as his work conditions. Later on, the author portrays how Dinky’s livelihood changes once he accepts Mr.Sharpton job offer. Dinky said, “DINKY’S DAYBOARD. That’s another fringe benefit. I write down whatever I want during the week, and I get everything I ask for (except sex-mags, as I told you).” (259) Now that Mr.Sharpton has hired him, Dinky can obtain anything he wants, living the life he has always wanted. He now has a house, food, movies, CDs, clothes, etc. He can obtain everything he needs just by writing on a board, which consequently improves his work and life conditions as compared to when he was working at a restaurant and living with his Ma. In summary, his “gift” gives him so many more opportunities now that he is working for Mr.Sharpton in comparison to when he was working as a pizza deliverer.
Moreover, violence plays a relevant role regarding Dinky’s sense of belonging. According to King, when Dinky was talking about Mr.Sharpton, he said, “I think it was just the way he put his hand on my arm, like your Dad would. Not that I have a Dad, But I can imagine.” (284) In this passage, it is apparent that Dinky has not met his father, which explains why he compares the way Mr.Sharpton treats him to the way a father would treat his child. Dinky felt like he was important to Mr.Sharpton and that he supported him in his decisions. Moreover, King portrays this feeling of belonging when Dinky said, “The truth was, I’d been doing what I was doing because I loved the feeling I got when I was composing the special letters, the feeling that there was a river of fire running through the center of my head.” (315-316) We can see that Dinky loves the feeling he gets while he is working at Transcorp. He feels like writing special letters makes him apart of a group called “trannies”. Furthermore, Stephen King also mentioned this feeling when Mr. Sharpton said, “I also know that you didn’t drop out because you were stupid; you dropped out because you didn’t fit. In that way, you are like every other tranny I’ve ever met” (287) This passage shows us that Mr.Sharpton gives Dinky a feeling of belonging by putting him in the trannies’ group. By using the experiences that Dinky had in high school, Dinky felt like someone was finally caring about him and that he belonged to a group of people with the same power as him. In summary, the job and group that Mr.Sharpton offers to Dinky –a group that commits acts of violence makes him feel like he finally belongs.
All that to say that violence has played an important role in Everything’s Eventual by Stephen King. The sense of belonging that Mr. Sharpton gives Dinky and the way this violent job changed his life for the better explains the roles of violence in this novella. Violence is still present in street gangs and new members are always using violence to obtain approval and a sense of belonging to the gang.Yet, violence is still a big problem that needs to be replaced to obtain a sense of approval from a specific group or just to obtain a better life. How could we replace violence to obtain a sense of belonging? How could we replace violence to obtain a better life or feel like we have a better life?
The past few years, the United States has been known for their wide varieties of sports-study programs offered to students wishing to study while participating in the sport they love. Several males and females in the United States have access to a wide range of sport programs such as football, basketball, volley-ball, tennis and soccer. However, the inequality between male and female athletes make an occurrence as there is still a level of discrimination present between the two genders in the world which we live. Even if women currently share the same as human rights as men, there is still the issue of unequal pay. Has the situation of female athletes in colleges and universities changed in the United States since Title IX was applied in 1972?
Several decades ago, female athletes could not defend their rights against universities who favoured male athletes. However, a federal law was adopted in 1972 that ordered equal gender access to colleges and universities called Title IX. Female athletes used this federal law to have access to the same amount of financial aid and sports programs as the male athletes had in colleges and universities. In fact, the Law stated that no person should be excluded or refrained from participating, being denied from benefits or being discriminated based on their sex. In other words, Title IX prohibits any forms of discrimination targeted at female athletes who were most likely to be excluded from sports programs or the advantages that were strictly accessible for men. Title IX analyzed gender equality with the three following compliances: compliance and accommodation of student interest and ability, athletic financial assistance, and other program areas such as coaching and recruitment. Under Title IX of compliance and accommodation of student interest and ability, they looked at the rate of full-time students who were male and female and determined how they would divide the opportunities for both sexes. The same steps were applied for coaching and recruitment, and athletic financial assistance. It meant that if 55% of college athletes were men, 55% of the scholarships shall be distributed to male college athletes. It also meant that the expenses spent on each team for coaching staff and recruitment were to between both genders.
Even if the Title IX was applied in 1972 to help female college athletes fight for their rights, the distribution of scholarships within female athletes was unequal. In fact, only 40% of scholarships were distributed to females, and the coaches of these woman teams received a lower wage than coaches of a men’s team. Female athletes received 42% of athletic aid, while male athletes were given an advantageous 58% out of the $47 million spent by the United States in 2003-2004. However, even if women represented 37% of college athletes in 2004, they were receiving higher scholarships than men by 300$ (based on the efforts that were made with Title IX). Women were also more likely to meet the expectations of the NCAA for core course, grade point average, and test requirements, which has increased their chances of scholarships when compared to the male college athletes in the NCAA’s program in 2004. However, according to Title IX, women could only received the percentage of scholarships that best fit their participation rate. The average number of scholarships that were distributed to male collegial athletes was 44 scholarships versus 31 scholarships for female collegial athletes in 2004, which is proportionate to the participation rate.
Even today, women athletes received less media coverage compared to male athletes. In reality, women athletes in american colleges and universities were expected to have good grades and to be able to have a career while male athletes were more focusing on going pro. Media coverage tend to jeopardized academics for highly male commercialized sports. Football players from Northwestern university were mandated to train 25 hours per week during the off-season which was equal to the time they spent in class, and during the season, they were training/playing 40 to 50 hours a week which is the double of the time they spent in the classroom. While men are receiving the majority of the spotlight, women only receive 2% to 4% of the media coverage and decreased in 2009 to 1,6%.
In the United States, the participation of female athletes in college sports teams still remains unequal. In 1970, 16,000 of all collegiate athletes were female with a team average of 2.5 teams per school. However, the number of collegiate athletes has increased in 2014 with 200 000 female athletes with a team average of 8.83 teams per school. In 2015, 43% of collegiate athletes were females. Moreover, the amount of female collegiate sports has increased in the past years. In fact, female soccer teams grew from 694 teams to 941 teams, female golf teams have increased from 302 teams to 512 teams, female lacrosse teams have increased from 100 teams to 286 teams in 2007 compared to 1996-1997. The participation of female athletes was very popular in soccer where 99.1% of NCAA’s school offered that program, in volleyball where 96.6% of NCAA’s school were offering that program. In 1977, only 2.8% of schools were offering soccer for female athletes which was an increase of 96.3%.
For several years, female athletes are known to have very high graduation rate compared to male college athletes. In fact, during the later 1980’s, women student athletes in universities had the highest graduation rate compared to the normal student and male student athletes. In fact, the graduation rate of male student athletes tend to be very low when it comes to highly commercialized sports. Nowadays, female athletes graduation rate was from 10% to 15% higher than male college athletes with higher GPA’s. Women basketball players were one of the most successful athletes for academics in 2014 in the NCAA. In 2014, in a NCAA women basketball tournament, 21 out of 64 teams participating to the tournament had a graduation rate of an 100%. In fact, women basketball players in colleges and universities take academics very seriously while basketball is a part of their recreational lives than going to play pro because its very rare for them to get to that level of play. Female athletes are also known to have less opportunities than men athletes. In fact, Women athletes have 60,000 less opportunities than men in participating to collegiate athletics. Also, women teams only received the third of the money spent on athletics as well as for the recruitment allowance compared to male teams.
Even in the 21st century, there are still inequalities among female athletes in colleges and universities in the United States for opportunities, media coverage, and scholarships. The participation of women is in a constant increase while the distribution of scholarships is still unequal even if Title IX is in place since 1972. However, the scholarships that women athletes received are higher than men athletes based on their grades and graduation rate which is better than the one of a normal student and male college athlete. In other words, even if Title IX was applied in 1972 to help female athletes to fight for equal rights in sports, there are still inequalities in the distribution of scholarships, the opportunities of sports programs and professionalization, and also in the attention that the media give to them.
Today, I went to my local bookstore who sales old/used books, and especially classics. I lived in Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, a beautiful little village near water with a bunch of little restaurants and bistro. Boats, park, more than 100 000 visitors in the summer. I like to read by the water in the summer, looking at the boat, and sometimes eat food in the little bistros and restaurants. There are classics you should read this summer.
1- 1984 by Georges Orwell
The tyranny is ostensibly overseen by Big Brother, the Party leader who enjoys an intense cult of personality, but who may not even exist. The Party “seeks power entirely for its own sake. It is not interested in the good of others; it is interested solely in power. The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a member of the Outer Party, who works for the Ministry of Truth (or Minitrue in Newspeak), which is responsible for propaganda and historical revisionism. His job is to rewrite past newspaper articles, so that the historical record always supports the party line.The instructions that the workers receive portray the corrections as fixing misquotations and never as what they really are: forgeries and falsifications. A large part of the Ministry also actively destroys all documents that have not been edited and do not contain the revisions; in this way, no proof exists that the government is lying. Smith is a diligent and skillful worker but secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion against Big Brother. The heroine of the novel, Julia, is based on Orwell’s second wife, Sonia Orwell.
I read this book back in High school when I was 15 years old which is 4 years-5 years ago now. It really changed my perspective of how the government has an impact on our lives in a way that makes us act like robots.
2- Brave New World by Aldous Huxley
Set in London in the year AD 2540 (632 A.F.—”After Ford”—in the book), the novel anticipates developments in reproductive technology, sleep-learning, psychological manipulation, and classical conditioning that are combined to profoundly change society.
I never read that book but my best friend told me that it has plenty of cheesy science-fiction in it as well as having related themes with 1984 written by Georges Orwell.
3- War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy
The novel chronicles the history of the French invasion of Russia and the impact of the Napoleonic era on Tsarist society through the stories of five Russian aristocratic families. Portions of an earlier version, titled The Year 1805, were serialized in The Russian Messenger from 1865 to 1867. The novel was first published in its entirety in 1869
On my way to work, I found fun to listen to different albums from today and from the past years like the Beatles, Ed Sheeran, Madonna, Alessia Cara and Bruno Mars. Today I decided to review the two most recent albums of Bruno Mars: Unorthodox Jukebox and 24K Magic.
Unorthodox Jukebox (2012)– Bruno Mars
Back in high school, I would listen to Bruno Mars songs all the time especially to Locked out of Heaven, Treasure, Natalie, When I was your man, Young Girls, and Gorilla. Those songs are my favorite on his album. However, I would have loved a more upbeat album coming from him but it is still a good album. There are 10 songs all talking about love by a hopeless romantic I would say. Some of the songs are about regrets and how you grow from your mistake, how love can be painful when it is not reciprocal. I really love the lyrics of those songs because it relates to my life experience in a certain way and it always good to hear the voice of my favorite singer when I need to feel better.
24K Magic (2016-2017)- Bruno Mars
This is my favorite album of all time. I love all the songs from it. Upbeat, low beat, it has everything. I really love it and it is perfect. I’m in college and I listen to it every day and it makes you so happy.
Cultural diffusion is the dispersal of a cultural trait from its cultural hearth, which is the point of origin of adaptation (Podmore, 2016). Religion has a cultural trait when it comes to beliefs, behaviors, and the rituals which impact cultural groups and their landscapes in more significant ways than language ever can ( Bryce, Buskard, Podmore, 2011, 140). In the 21st century, Christianity is ranked as the most practiced religion throughout the world with 31,82% of the population that partake in Christian practices and beliefs. The religion is predominantly existent in Europe, Oceania, and Americas (North and South) (Bryce, Buskard, Podmore, 2011, 141). However, the spread of Christianity during the Roman Empire went from west to north, which was successful among smaller regions but failed to be received by three major regions in the East Asia : Persia, China, and India (Montgomery, 2001, 1) The purpose of this paper is to examine the cultural diffusion of Christianity in space over time. It will begin with a discussion about how Christianity spread during the Roman Empire period, following a discussion of the spread of Christianity in Europe, North and South America, and Asia by explaining how and what are the causes of the expansion in those specific regions, using the opinions of Canadians about Christianity (compared with other major religions in the world).
The birth of Christianity originates back to the Roman Empire period. With the fall of Rome to the Arian Christian barbarians in 410, Christianity spread Eastward and Northward; outside the areas in Roman control (Montgomery, 2001, 3). The ‘Single God’ concept was not new to the Romans at the time, even though it created a change in philosophy where God is superior to the emperor and Rome itself (UNRV History, 2003). The religion has been present since the period where the battles between Patricians and Plebes occurred, the resistance to the Etruscan Kings, and as well as the social war of the disenfranchised Italians that sought Roman citizenship (UNRV History, 2003). The political-military domination of Rome and the Greco-Roman culture, the followers of Christianity would prioritize their new faith to the West (Montgomery, 2001, 2). To get more followers and believers, the Roman Empire offered one of the most advanced communication and transportation systems to the early believers (Montgomery, 2001, 2). Moreover, the naturalistic perspective portrays that the spread of Christianity was actually extremely complicated rather than simple and requires deliberation (Montgomery, 2001, 2). In fact, the extension of Christianity geographically has contributed to the formation of the Western civilization (Montgomery, 2001, 2).
Following the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, Christianity has dispersed in several continents and regions, such as Asia, Europe, and Africa. In Asia, Christianity started developing through the era of colonialism 500 years ago (Chia, 2012, 9). The dissemination was due to the colonial expansionist program (Chia, 2012, 10). Asians, in fact, used to look at Christianity as a foreign religion. This explains why the religion failed to emerge within most areas of Asia, except for the Philippines and the East of Timor (Chia, 2012, 9-10). In the Philippines, most of the population practice both the Protestant and Roman Catholic Christianity (Figure 1). This phenomenon can be explained through the conclusion of World War II, the Pacific War in Asia, and with the successive disassembling of colonialism where a number of indigenous people of former colonies began to fight against political oppression in their seek of their own indigenous identities (Chia, 2012,11). As for Europe, all countries but the Czech Republic and Estonia, who have no religion what so ever, are practitioners of the two types of Christianity (Figure 1). The religious belief of Christianity commenced when Jesus was crucified; with the help of his disciples to transmit his message. By the 600 Ce, Western Europe began practicing Christianity (Kuzoian, 2015). In the 1000 Christ era, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade, which spread Christianity through a Russia, Turkey, Finland, Sweden, and Norway (Kuzoian, 2015). In Africa, the spread of Christianity began with the colonization of Africa, specifically in the Southern regions (Kuzoian, 2015). In 2002, 376 453 000 Africans were Christian believers (Kaba, 2002, 553). The spread of Christianity in Africa mostly originates from Europe. Belgium is the colonizer Democrat Republic of Congo, France for Cameroon and Antogo, the United Kingdom for Nigeria, Swaziland, Zambia, South Africa, and Portugal for Angola (Kaba, 2002, 566-567) (Figure 1 & Figure 2).
Christianity spread through the opinions of people all around the world, especially in Canada. Angus Reid Strategies surveyed 1,002 Canadians on their opinions and knowledge about each religion that is present in Canada, being Christianity, Buddhism, Judaism, Islam, Sikhism, and Hinduism (Geddes, 2009). Concerning the opinions that prove favorable, 72% of Canadians have preferred Christianity when compared to 28% that were pro-Islam, 57% Buddhism, and 53% Judaism (Geddes, 2009). Moreover, they surveyed their thoughts of the mainstream beliefs of each religion, and if they are encouraging violence or are mostly calm/peaceful. The results show that 45% of Canadians believe that Islam encourages violence through popular beliefs compared to the 26% for Sikhism, 13% for Hinduism, and 14% for Jewish (Geddes, 2009). We can say that the dispersion of Christianity in Canada was very successful based on the number of approving opinions towards the religion. Precisely 89% of Canadians are friends with Christians and 86% have a solid, basic understanding of Christianity (Geddes, 2009). The province that showed the highest number of favorable opinions for Christianity is Quebec, with a dominating 67% who were a pro to the religion when compared to 17% for Islam, 36% for Judaism, and 15% for Sikhism (Geddes, 2009).
Throughout hundreds of years, the spread of Christianity has been quite rapid following the crucifixion of Jesus. With the fall of the Roman Empire, it spread quickly through Europe (Figure 1 & Figure 2). The colonial expansionist program can be rooted back to Christianity’s succession as a belief in Asia, The Pacific War, and the end of World War II which consequently managed to slow down the process in Asia, which explains why Asia shows no evidence of being a Christianity-dominated continent (Figure 1). The spread of the belief in Africa started with its colonization in its Southern region, where the colonizers were mostly from Europe. Christianity is seen as a peaceful religion by Canadians, and mostly evoke favorable opinions by Canadians and Quebecers in comparison to other religions. With all these events and opinions, it’s justifiable to say that Christianity is the most practiced religion in the World.