A Winner or Loser’s Game? : a literature review of the Issues with Hosting the Olympics

Abstract 

In several cases that have been studied in the past, the Olympics are not only an event that can entertained billions of people, but can have an impact on the host cities. This paper reviews the economic and social impacts that the Olympics can have on the host city, either negative or positive such as tourism, cost, hotel occupation, debts, biding process, human rights, and other aspects will be discussed.  After combining all the findings together from different academic articles and secondary sources, it was found that hosting the Olympics results more negative impacts than positive impacts for the cities either economically or socially. The paper concludes that even if the host cities have had a chance to improve the self-image, tourism, and other aspects of their cities, the huge cost, the biding process, the human rights violation, the relocation of households, increase prices of rental and goods, and all those negative economic and social impacts are outweighing the benefits.

Introduction

Back at the Olympics in Rio de Janeiro in 2016, something really odd happens before the opening ceremony of the Summer Olympics. In fact, two days before the big opening, the olympics organizers had lost the key to the Olympics stadium’s opening gate. That’s right , like my roommate does practically all the time, they reported this event in their top 12 bizarre Olympic moments (LeDonne, 2016, Rolling Stone). They had to use bolt cutters to cut the gate open. The Olympics have always been an event that captivates us since the best athletes of each country demonstrate their knowledge in front of the whole world.

This topic is significant because it involves every countries around the world in a short period of time, result a lot of media coverage before during and after the Olympics like we have seen with Sochi 2014 and Rio de Janeiro 2016 and it involves the host cities economic as well as their population. Even if Rio de Janeiro tried to assure safety of their Olympics’ buildings, this shows that hosting the Olympics can caused some issues more important than simply losing keys. In several cases that have been studied in the past, the Olympics are not only an event that can entertained billions of people, but can have an impact on the host cities. What are the impacts of hosting the Olympics for cities?

The key concepts presented in this paper are social impacts, economic impacts, and mega sporting events. Social impact is define as impacts that are affecting self-image of a city, his culture, and his population. (Malfas et al., 2004 , 214) On the other hand, economic impact is define has impacts that are affecting the local economy. (Malfas et al., 2004 , 212 ) Lastly, a mega-sporting is an event that includes specialist world-level international sports like the FIFA or the World Cup as well as world-regional level of these sports. The are mainly multi-sports events like the Olympics and the Commonwealth games. (Malfas et al., 2004 , 211)

The research question will address 2 subfields. The first subfield that this paper will address is economics where aspects such as tourism, cost, debts and  job opportunities will be review. Economics is involved in every aspects of the Olympics either if it is before or after it happens. As well as involving the economy of the host city, it also involves his own population and its surroundings which lead to the second social discipline. The second subfield or social sciences discipline that this paper will address is sociology where aspects such as media coverage, self-image and sport participation will be review.

This paper will first discuss the economic benefits linked with hosting the Olympics where tourism, job opportunities, creation of friendly economic relationship, cultural wealth, and hotel occupation will be talked about. Next, the paper explores the economic consequences of hosting such a mega sporting event where the huge cost (infrastructures), prices of goods, economic burden for the population and host cities, hotel occupancy, debts and relocation of households will be explored in depth. It will also explores the social benefits where positive media coverage, self-image improvement, increase in sport participation and attraction of opinion leaders will be discussed. Finally, this paper will last discuss the social consequences where traffic congestion, parking problems, and relocation of homes will be explored in depth.

Literature Review

Economic Benefits 

The Olympics are an event involving several aspects of the economy of the host country. It is an event that generates a lot of money and positive economic aspects including an increase in tourism, lead its population to participate in sports, helps hotel to welcomed more clients and money into their business, help population find and get jobs easily. Advertisings and sponsors were found crucial for the host city’s economy.

As a matter of fact, hosting the Olympics can provide to the host city job opportunities for his population, a worldwide interest in its cultural wealth, attracting more tourists, and opening new friendly relationships with other countries. (Yao, 2010, 5) It was found in past olympics that hotel occupation was a big economic benefit for host cities. In fact, during the Barcelona 2002 Olympics Games, there was an increase of 100% in hotel occupation and increase in the amount of tourists coming from Spain, Europe and any other countries. (Gratton & Preuss, 2008 , 1933)

Because the hotel occupation had increased during this mega-sporting event, researchers have found that the amount of tourists visiting the host country/city has increased as well. Indeed, 36.3% of people during the Calgary Winter Olympics saw an increase in tourism and 34% saw it as an economic benefit. (Ritchie et al., 2009, 145)

As well as providing more tourists and money to hotels, it was found that the unemployment rate in some cities has decreased by half. In fact, the general rate of unemployment during the Barcelona Olympic Games fell from 18.4% to 9.6%. ( Malfas et al., 2004 , 212) Additionally, the money that is invested during the Olympics could help the host city in the future. In fact, $42.5 billion  were invested in constructing non-sports infrastructure for the 2014 Olympics in Russia, more than $22.5 billion were invested in constructing roads, airports and rails including almost $11.25 billion on environmental cleanup by Beijing for the 2008 Summer Games (Wills, 2016) . Additionally, “thousands of sponsors, media, athletes and spectators typically visit a host city for six months before and six months after the Olympics, which brings in additional revenue.” (Wills, 2016)

Finally, studies have found that the Olympics have generate economic profits and supported a lot of jobs. In a point of fact, during the Olympic in Los Angeles in 1984, the economic profit that the games had generated was about $2.3 billion and helped support 73 375 jobs. (Blake, 2005, 13) The same phenomenon was seen in Seoul 1988 to Athens 2004. In fact, Seoul 1988 generated $1.6 billion and created 336 000 jobs, Barcelona 1992 caused a direct economic impact of $30 million and an increased in job of 296 640 jobs. (Blake, 2005, 14) Atlanta 1996 also caused an economic impact of $5.1 billion as well as creating 77 026 jobs, Sydney 2000 generated $5.1 billion and produced  156 198 jobs. (Blake, 2005, 14) Athens 2004 also was one of the Olympics that had a positive economic impact on the host city. In fact, the Greek city had an economic impact calculated between US$10.2 billion and US$15. 9 billion and had an employment impact between 300 400 and 445 000 jobs. (Blake, 2005, 15)

Economic benefits are always the aspects that countries and host cities cares about the most because some of the country are not that wealthy to host them. In fact, because they are only looking at the positive benefits financially, they forgot to think about what could go wrong financially talking.

Economic Consequences

Despite the positive side of hosting the Olympics, it was found that not only cities are making the mistake to look only at the positive side economically, but forgot to look what could go wrong before and after this mega-sporting event. Wealthy countries are also having difficulties according to some researches economically with hosting the Olympics such as the huge cost, the hotel occupancy going down after, unmeet budget as well increasing unemployment in certain countries.

Back in 1995 during the Atlanta Olympics games, it was found that the hotel occupancy had decreased even it had been considered an economic benefit for hosting the Olympics in the past. In fact, during the 1995 Atlanta Olympics, the hotel occupancy fell from 72.9% to 68% despite the presence of the Olympics. (Owen, 2005, 7) Moreover , it was found that hosting mega sporting events such as the Olympics can cause an increase in the price of goods, services, economic and social burden on the local population. The huge cost might outweigh the positives benefit. ( Ritchie et al. 2009, 146 )

Researches on past Olympics have found that host cities have some sort of difficulties to keep up with the debts it had caused. As a matter of fact, Montreal spend 30 years paying back this enormous project. The budgets are never met every year. It always cost more than it was supposed to cost. ( De Oliviera, 2011, 2) Barcelona is also another example of host cities that struggle with the Olympic budget where the overall infrastructure cost for Barcelona 2002 was about $7.5 billion instead of $1.5 billion that the Olympic Committee had planed to use . ( Gratton & Preuss, 2008 ,1933) Moreover, experts also found that Nagano struggled with debts. After the Nagano Olympic Games in 1998, they suffered from severe financial consequences for hosting such a big event. In fact, each taxpayers households had debts of up to £20 000. ( Malfas et al., 2004 , 213)

Hosting such mega sporting events can cause relocation of households, “because of the compulsory purchase of land for clearance and building, and it can also lead to a rise in rents and house prices.” It causes issues for low-income neighbourhood. ( Malfas et al., 2004 , 213) The evolution of the Olympics’ program was also found to have a negative impact on the host cities. From 1980 to 2000, 7 new sports and 80 events were added to the Olympic program which caused less wealthier countries to have an enormous burden because the Olympics became too big. “As a result only wealthier cities can afford to stage an Olympic Games.” ( Cashman, 2002 , 8) Countries like Brazil in 2016 shows that less wealthier countries have extreme difficulties to pay the bills even after getting the knowledge of how hosting such mega-sporting events for the future. Indeed, Rio de Janeiro was already in an emergency state of mind where they don’t have enough money to keep police cars on the road, their universities are on strike for insufficient money found, 500 000 servants have received their salaries late, and the economic and social inequalities became more obvious to the population. The budget was exceeded by $13 billions of what the Olympic Committee had planned to pay( Soares, 2016) The huge cost of such mega-sporting events is not new to anybody. In fact, “These days the summer Games might generate $5-to-6 billion in total revenue (nearly half of which goes to the International Olympic Committee). In contrast, the costs of the games rose to an estimated $16 billion in Athens, $40 billion in Beijing, and reportedly nearly $20 billion in London” ( Zimbalist, 2012)

Also, it as found that maintaining stadiums after these mega-sporting events cost a lot the the host cities. In fact, it cost $30 millions every year to Sydney to maintained their stadium and $10 million to Beijing. (Wills, 2016) Also during the 2002 Sydney Olympic Games, it was found that after the event, the amount of seat went from 110 000 seats to 80 000 seats which resulted an unnecessary expense in the beginning and also because they could not sufficient tenants to keep up with the stadium cost . (Cashman, 2002 , 9)

Even with the job opportunities that the Olympics could create, this job boost was found to not last long enough. In fact, Salt Lake City only saw their job rate increased by only by 7000 jobs which is 10% of what they had expected. (Wills, 2016) In addition, the unemployment rate in Sydney had increased up to 23%, which means that it was at 38%. (Malfas et al., 2004 , 213) During the same Olympics in Sydney, the prices of houses had increased by 7% of their actual prices, in comparison with the actual 2%. (Malfas et al., 2004 , 213) Finally, the biding process is high in cost for the cities that are trying to get the Olympics. As a matter of fact, Chicago spent over $100 million in his lost battle to get this mega-sporting event.( Zimbalist, 2012)

In other words, the positives and negatives economic impacts are not always considered equally when it’s time to make a decision on whether they will host the Olympics or not. Moreover, not only the economy is influenced by this mega-sporting event, the social aspect is also affected positively and negatively.

Social Benefits 

The Olympics is not only an economic event that all countries are concerned about, it is also an event that includes the host country population and its environment. Because of the Olympics, people tend according to several researches to participate more in different sports, receiving positive comments from the media, and being able to increase their personal image.

In fact, hosting the Olympics is beneficial to improve your city image. It helps governance reform, positive media coverage, attraction opinion leaders and improve their city’s image. ( Avraham, 2014 , 71) Moreover, it was found in past studies that hosting the Olympics could increased the rate of sport participation in his population. As a matter of fact, there was an increased of 46 000 news users of the host city’s sport centre after the 1992 Olympic Games. The participation of women went from 36% in 1989 to 45% in 1995 in Barcelona.  ( Malfas et al, 2004 , 214) As well as increasing the sports’ participation rate, it was found that the Olympics could provide better sports facilities and urban infrastructures for his population. (Cashman, 2002 , 7) In conjunction with sport participation, it was found that an increased in sport participation could help provides a sense of well-being, self-fulfilment and achievement, encourages social interaction and cohesion between people. (Malfas et al., 2004, 214)

In addition, the Olympics provides a positive media coverage according to experts. Indeed, 60.2% of the London population believed that the 2012 games were portrayed positively by the media, 22.6%  neutral, and 5% negatively. (Ritchie et al., 2009, 163) Likewise, the ranking of a city can also increased due to hosting the Olympics. In point of fact, Barcelona increased his ranking among other Europeans countries during the 2002 Summer games. “Barcelona’s use of the games as a city marketing factor is generally regarded as a huge success. This is evidenced by Barcelona’s rise in ranking in the European Cities Monitor from 11th in 1990 to 6th in 2002.” (Gratton & Preuss, 2008 ,1933) Hosting the Olympics can also creates opportunities for new sporting facilities which could improve the physical environment go the host city. (Malfas et al., 2004, 214)

Even if the economic aspect is always the one that people tend to look at because it is considered more important, the social aspect of hosting the Olympics is as important as the economic aspects. Moreover, there are not only positive sides socially talking with hosting the Olympics. In fact, the construction of buildings and the exorbitant amount of people walking in the host city can have negative social impacts on the host.

Social Consequences

The social aspects of the host country of the Olympic Games may include such things as tourism, street traffic and its population. on the other hand, these aspects can be negatively affected by the traffic generated by the exorbitant number of people walking in the host city as well as reducing the available parking capacity. Because the city needs space to build their infrastructure, some citizens will have no choice but to relocate by force.

Hosting the Olympic can cause traffic congestion and parking problems during the construction of the Olympics facilities which could seriously affect the quality of life of local residents. ( Ritchie et al., 2009, 146) Such sporting events can also increase the crime rate due to an influx of people and migrant workers , the pressure linked with security concerns could place a critical strain on law enforcements, could create conflicts between tourisms and over access to recreational spaces. (Ritchie et al., 2009, 146) These were problems were also found during the 1996 Olympics games in Atlanta where media exposure was not positive at all. In fact, there was traffic congestion, administrative problems, security breaches and over-commercialization. Atlanta did not received the kind of media attention they wanted. (Owen, 2005, 9)

Additionally, because of the construction of infrastructures, people had to leave their house and sometimes away from their families and friends. Indeed, during the construction of infrastructures for Beijing 2008 Olympics, 1.5 million people were evicted from their homes as well as seeing their neighbourhood destroyed. People had to move far away from friends, family and work. ( Clift & Manley, 2017) Moreover, the same phenomenon happened during the Atlanta Olympics games in 1996. Indeed, 15 000 residents were evicted from their houses to make room for Olympics accommodation. (Malfas et al., 2004 , 213)

Atlanta 1996 did suffered with more than one social consequences due to the host of the Olympics. The poverty issue had increased to 30% of the population who lived below the poverty line as well as losing public funds of about $350 million from low income housing, social services, and other services towards homeless and poor people.. (Malfas et al., 2004 , 213) Along with this, homeless shelters were transformed in backpacking accommodation for tourists during the Atlanta 1996 Olympics games. (Malfas et al., 2004, 213) Finally, researches on past Olympics have found that there were violations of humans rights during some of them. In fact, there were repressive measures in China in 2008, violations of the LGBT rights in 2014 before and during Sochi 2014 where persistent human rights issues are seen in these mega-sporting events, which results the Olympics to signify oppression and exclusion . ( Clift & Manley, 2017)

To summarize everything that have been talked about in this paper, host cities need to take in consideration both the economic and social aspect of hosting the Olympics because the findings suggests that it is the major mistake of every host city every year. The positive side of this event is always looked up whereas the negative side is not taking into consideration in the decision making process.

Conclusion

This paper has explores many aspects related to the economic and social impacts of hosting the Olympics for host cities. The findings suggests that the Olympics does results more economic and social negative impacts than positive impacts for the host cities. Even if the host cities have had a chance to improve the self-image, tourism, and other aspects of their cities, the huge cost, the biding process, the human rights violation, the relocation of households, increase prices of rental and goods, and all those negative economic and social impacts are outweighing the benefits. Spending billions of dollars on stadiums and sports facilities, and not being able to get the same amount that was originally invested, is not a winning game. On the contrary, the results show that there are not great economic and social benefits with hosting the Olympics . A recommendation for areas of future researches would be to evaluate more the opinions of people in the host cities about how they feel about getting evicted, how does it affect their family, how they feel about their human rights being violated and why do they not tried to stop their city/country from hosting such an high cost mega-sporting event. By asking for the opinion of his population, the host cities or future host cities could have a great idea how they feel about their city spending a lot of money on such an event and also could prevent some social negative impacts to happens or intensify. Furthermore, it would be a good idea to look more in depth about the social aspects linked to the traffic congestion and parking problems because they were not a lot of information about those issues linked to the Olympics. Lastly, the last recommendation for future areas of researches would be to found a way were host cities could outbalanced the economic and social consequences related to the Olympics. By finding ways and strategies that could help the less wealthy cities to be allowed to host this prestigious mega-sporting, it would not only allow them to remove the economic burden, but could help those countries and cities to improve their economic and social aspects. If all this research were only to come true, perhaps major changes could be made to allow the host cities and its population to fully enjoy the Olympics Games.

Works cited

Avraham, E. (2014). Hosting events as a tool for restoring destination image. International Journal of Event Management Research, 8(1), 61-76.

Blake, A. (2005). Economic impact of the London 2012 Olympics. Christel DeHaan Tourism and Travel Research Institute, 5, 1-68.

Cashman, R. (2003). Impact of the Games on Olympic host cities. Barcelona: Centre d’Estudis Olympics. 5-16.

Clift, B. C., & Manley, A. (2016). Five reasons why your city won’t want to host the Olympic Games. The Conversation. Retrieved November 1, 2017.

DE OLIVEIRA, G. (2011). N. La ville de Rio de Janeiro et la conquête du rêve olympique: qui gagne à ce jeu. Centre d’études et de recherches sur le Brésil.1-5

Gratton, C., & Preuss, H. (2008). Maximizing Olympic impacts by building up legacies. The international journal of the history of sport, 25(14), 1922-1938.

LeDonne, R. (2016). 12 Most Bizarre Olympic Moments (So Far). Rolling Stone. Retrieved November 1, 2017.

Malfas, M., Houlihan, B., & Theodoraki, E. (2004). Impacts of the Olympic Games as mega-events. ICE. 1922-1938

Owen, J. G. (2005). Estimating the cost and benefit of hosting Olympic Games: what can Beijing expect from its 2008 Games?. The industrial geographer, 3(1), 1. 1-50

Ritchie, B. W., Shipway, R., & Cleeve, B. (2009). Resident perceptions of mega-sporting events: A non-host city perspective of the 2012 London Olympic Games. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 14(2-3), 143-167.

Yao, Jiajun. The effect of hosting the Olympics on national image: An analysis of US newspaper coverage of host countries with reputation problems. Iowa State University, 2010. 1-81

Wills, J. (2016). What Is the Economic Impact of Hosting the Olympics? Investopedia. Retrieved November 1, 2017.

Zimbalist, A. (2012). 3 Reasons Why Hosting the Olympics Is a Loser’s Game. The Atlantic. Retrieved November 1, 2017.

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Ally Condie’s Trilogy

Welcome back, everyone ! I have been very busy in the past month with the exams, work and most of all holidays. I went back to my hometown for Christmas to see my grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, and little cousins. I met people I have never met before on my grandma’s side which made it really fun and interesting to meet such colorful people.  I played hockey,  hiking, bike, working out, watching movies with tea or hot cocoa, and most of all: reading. I read the Ally Condie trilogy but did not really make it to chapter 2. Why? Because science fiction books are not really my things, I really prefer suspense, drama and romance books near reality. However, I can say that these books are best sellers and would maybe be perfect for other people than me. I believe the author is really good even if I did not go through the trilogy in a whole.

#1 Matched 

In the Society, officials decide. Who you love. Where you work. When you die.

Cassia has always trusted their choices. It’s hardly any price to pay for a long life, the perfect job, the ideal mate. So when her best friend appears on the Matching screen, Cassia knows with complete certainty that he is the one…until she sees another face flash for an instant before the screen fades to black. Now Cassia is faced with impossible choices: between Xander and Ky, between the only life she’s known and a path no one else has ever dared follow—between perfection and passion.

#2 Crossed 

The Society chooses everything.

The books you read.
The music you listen to.
The person you love.

Yet for Cassia the rules have changed. Ky has been taken and she will sacrifice everything to find him.

And when Cassia discovers Ky has escaped to the wild frontiers beyond the Society there is hope.

But on the edge of society nothing is as it seems…

A rebellion is rising.

#3 Reached 

After leaving Society to desperately seek The Rising, and each other, Cassia and Ky have found what they were looking for, but at the cost of losing each other yet again. Cassia is assigned undercover in Central city, Ky outside the borders, an airship pilot with Indie. Xander is a medic, with a secret. All too soon, everything shifts again.

Cellphone use in the classroom: Is it an ethical issue?

sexting-smartphone

This topic has been a huge debate between the teachers and the students who say that cellphones are a distraction for the student’s learning process. However, teachers sometimes decide to take away the phone and even going through the privacy of the students by reading the messages out loud for example. Is it ethical to do so and in what circumstances it is not?

First of all, how many of you have had your phone’s taken by a teacher? Now how many of you knew that it was forbidden to use your phone in class and used it anyway? In fact, the majority of students do use their cellphone in class even if the school policies on phone is really strict. 68% of the students with a really strict phone policies would still use their phone in class where 58% of them would send and receive messages while using it. In more permissive schools, 82% of students would use their phone in class where 71% of them would receive and send messages while using it. Even if the percentage of students using their phone in class is really high, the teachers sometimes take the phone policies way above the rights of the students like in the Manitoba case and other American cases.

The Manitoba case
In the Winnipeg school district, teachers are allowed to confiscate students’ phones for whatever reason they deem necessary and can unlock and search them until they find what they want. There are currently no laws forbidding them to do so, however, they are trying to update their policies and rules. A quote we found particularly interesting from the article is the following: “
Policy has failed to evolve as smartphones have become commonplace in many Manitoba classrooms, compounding problems such as cyberbullying or the exchange of sensitive photos” In all of these cases that we see and that are going to be talked about, no teacher has taken away a cellphone for those two reasons. In fact, most cases have the teacher taking away the phone because the kid has it in class, which the teacher finds disruptive.

Klump vs Nazareth case

Christopher Klump is a student whose cell phone was taken by a teacher in the Nazareth Area School District in Pennsylvania. A teacher and principal searched the phone, read text messages and listened to voicemails, and even called 9 other classmates from the student’s cell phone to see if they were also violating the school’s rules. The administration proceeded to instant message Klump’s younger brother who had no idea who they were and began answering their invasive questions, “without identifying themselves as being anyone other than Christopher”. However, the story gets a little complicated when the staff searching his phone received a drug-related text message…

This was taken to court and they agreed that the student’s 4th amendment rights were violated, noting that although the district did have the right to take the phone under school policy, “[the district] had no reason to suspect that such a search would reveal that [the student] was violating another school policy.” It just happened to be a coincidence that he received a text indicating his relation to drugs. Since school officials didn’t see the drug-related text until after they initiated the search of the cell phone, the court concluded there was no justification for the search, and the search was deemed unreasonable. They only searched his phone because he had it out in class, none of them did it with the motive of finding evidence of drug use with this particular student.

GC vs Owensboro 

This case begins with a student identified as G.C, who went to school in Owensboro, Kentucky. So, G.C had a few disciplinary incidents with the school before and had apparently approached a staff member one afternoon and told them he had issues with depression and was struggling with drugs. In class one day, G.C was caught texting on his phone in the middle of a lecture, which violates the school rules and his teacher confiscated his phone and handed it over to the assistant principal who proceeded to search it and read 4 of his text messages. She later testified and said that she knew of the student’s discipline issues and was looking “to see if there was an issue with which I could help him so that he would not do something harmful to himself or someone else.” Now, I don’t know what truly went on in her head, but something tells me that wasn’t her initial motive for taking his phone. He wasn’t showing any signs of being upset or having anything wrong when he was texting during her class, so I think she probably was just annoyed that he was doing so and took it because of that.

This student was an out-of-district student, meaning that he didn’t live in the district area for the school and went there anyways, although none of the articles said exactly why. G.C ended up getting his privileges revoked to attend this school any longer, so he pretty much got expelled because the assistant principal said it was his “last disciplinary straw”. His parents ended up taking this case to court, seeing how this was extremely unfair for their son. They ended up losing, however the court concluded that since he was an out-of-district student, they couldn’t kick him out during the middle of the school year without providing a due process hearing. That is pretty much like a courtroom hearing for the plaintiffs and the school, where you can call witnesses, make arguments and give evidence and there is no judge, but a trained, impartial hearing officer that makes a final decision. It usually takes place in a conference room inside the school and can last from 1-2 days. “Under our two-part test, using a cellphone on school grounds does not automatically trigger an essentially unlimited right enabling a school official to search any content stored on the phone that is not related either substantively or temporally to the infraction”. They concluded by saying that “We disagree … that general background knowledge of drug abuse or depressive tendencies, without more, enables a school official to search a student’s cell phone when a search would otherwise be unwarranted”. So, they’re saying that just because she had prior knowledge of his issues with drugs and depression gives her no right to search his phone when he just had it out in class.

In these cases, some of the rights of students are not respected according to different laws that protect us against violations of our privacy.

What are the rights of students

Four regulatory ‘charts’

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom

 

  • Everyone has the right to be secure against unreasonable search or seizure.

 

Fourth Amendment to the U.S Constitution

 

  • Protects citizens against unreasonable searches and seizures.
  • People’s right to privacy and freedom against unreasonable intrusions by the government
  • Don’t guarantee protection for all searches and seizures
  • “ warrantless search and seizure of properties are not illegal, if the objects being searched are in plain view. Further, warrantless seizure of abandoned property, or of properties on an open field do not violate Fourth Amendment, because it is considered that having expectation of privacy right to an abandoned property or to properties on an open field is not reasonable.”

 

Education Act (Quebec)

  • A teacher shall
  • (1)  contribute to the intellectual and overall personal development of each student entrusted to his care;
  • (2)  take part in instilling into each student entrusted to his care a desire to learn;
  • (3)  take the appropriate means to foster respect for human rights in his students;
  • (4)  act in a just and impartial manner in his dealings with his students;
  • (5)  take the necessary measures to promote the quality of written and spoken language;
  • (6)  take the appropriate measures to attain and maintain a high level of professionalism;
  • (6.1)  collaborate in the training of future teachers and in the mentoring of newly qualified teachers;
  • (7)  comply with the educational project of the school.

The California Electronic Communications Privacy Act (CalECPA)

  • The privacy of your phone (or tablet or laptop), as well as your accounts with services like Facebook or Snapchat
  • ONLY IN AN EMERGENCY* OR WITH A SEARCH WARRANT ISSUED BY A JUDGE based on “probable cause” that your phone contains evidence of a crime (meaning that a reasonable person would believe there is evidence in your phone). You have the right to keep your digital devices private, even if:

 

  • You use your phone when you are not supposed to;
  • You break any other school rule;
  • You cause a disruption by using your phone; or
  • Your school wants to search your phone to investigate another student’s misconduct

 

Frequent questions asked by students

If my school has a search warrant, can it look at everything on my phone?

  1. First, only duly-sworn law enforcement officers can execute a search warrant. Second, the search can only be for evidence of the specific crime that you are suspected of breaking, and the search warrant must describe the type of information and parts of the phone that may be searched. For example, school officials cannot look at photos unless they have probable cause to believe that the photos contain evidence of a crime.

Can my school restrict when I use my phone?

YES. Your school can also confiscate your phone if you violate your school’s cell phone policy. But that does not give it the authority to conduct a search.

What can I do if my school doesn’t follow the law?

You can DEMAND THAT YOUR INFORMATION BE DELETED and prevent it from being used in any kind of disciplinary action or another proceeding If the school repeatedly violates students’ rights or otherwise causes you harm, you may have additional remedies as well.

What if my school asks me to sign a waiver allowing the school to search my phone at any time?

You can SAY NO. Public schools cannot require you to waive your right to privacy in order to attend school


To conclude, the students laws as well as how cell phones are viewed in the classroom needs to be changed or improved to be sure that every right is respected for everyone (Egalitarian Ethics) as well as providing teachers with better laws to respect. Cellphones have not been proved to be an element that affects academic improvement as well as being something that should be ban. A cell phone is a useful tool for academic purposes where you can have access to dictionaries, translators, education apps, as well as internet informations.

Alcohol consumption among Indigenous Peoples in Canada

1200px-common_alcoholic_beveragesIn a article published in 2014 by CBC News on Alcohol consumption among Indigenous societies, alcoholism is considered an issue that seems to be related to conditions such as poverty. It has been a subject that caused a lot of stereotypes and racism about aboriginal peoples in our modern society since they thought it was caused by a genetic predisposition, which according to the article, is not caused by genes. (CBC News, 2014) What are the reasons for Alcohol consumption among Indigenous people? Even if it was found by CBC News that alcohol, consumption among Aboriginal populations is not based on a genetic predisposition, this issue has started to become a major challenge in some Indigenous communities because of their historical background, the residential school syndrome as well as the statistics that are provided in the modern populations.

Back in the history of the First Nations, they were exposed to alcohol by the Europeans when they arrived in North America. In fact, the author describes aboriginal life before the arrival of the Europeans in Canada : “Before European people arrived in what is now known as Canada, Aboriginal peoples did not have a brewing tradition and had no experience with alcohol. As the Fur Trade developed, alcohol came to be used as a gift item as well as an item of trade at trading posts (Waldram, Herring, Young, 2000). Traders would use alcohol, especially rum and brandy to entice trappers away from rival company posts.” (Smillie-Adjarkwa, 2009) This passages shows that Aboriginal peoples did not know about alcohol until the Europeans showed them this product which resulted in problems in the future. Being exposed to a enormous amount of alcohol with little to no experience of how to manage it would cause struggle to Aboriginal peoples as it would to any other people. As a matter of fact, Beauvais says “ When large amounts of distilled spirits and wine [were] made available to American Indians, the tribes had little time to develop social, legal, or moral guidelines to regulate alcohol use.” (p.253) This quote shows that being exposed to so much alcohol caused Aboriginal populations to struggle with how they were supposed to drink as well as how to drink with moderation. There were few or no legal or moral guidelines based on alcohol consumption because of the huge quantity they had to deal with. In fact, the author describes this naive alcohol model established by the Europeans: “Sadly, the hard-drinking, rowdy colonists provided early Native Americans with the worst role models possible. Binge drinking, violent outbursts and extreme intoxication were common.” (Beauvais, 253) It shows that the alcohol consumption models that was provided by the Europeans to the Indigenous peoples was really inappropriate and resulted important consequences among Aboriginal peoples in Canada. All of that to say that the historical background of the First Nations has a big impact on Alcohol consumption nowadays.

Residential schools were really draining emotionally and physically talking for Aboriginal peoples in Canada. In the late 1800s, residential schools were implemented everywhere in the country. The abuse that the survivors had to go through in residential schools resulted in substance abuse such as alcohol and drugs addiction. In reality, Goforth says “the high rates of impoverishment, incarceration, suicide and alcoholism in Canadian Indigenous peoples, can be traced back to the abuse received at residential schools” (p.16) This passage shows that the abuse that the survivors of residential schools have suffered affect them mentally. It causes them to be really depressed and more likely to attempt suicide and abuse alcohol or any other drugs available on the market. Moreover, Brasfield says “Often there is markedly increased arousal including sleep difficulties, anger management difficulties, and impaired concentration. As might be the case for anyone attending a boarding school with inadequate parenting, parenting skills are often deficient. Strikingly, there is a persistent tendency to abuse alcohol or sedative medication drugs, often starting at a very young age.” (2001) This citation shows that the residential school syndrome includes alcohol addiction due to the traumatic events that were experienced when they were in residential schools. It also cause other critical issues such as anger problems, difficulty concentrating, and insomnia, which is similar to the diagnostic criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress disorder. In addition, because they are not completely healed from surviving through residential schools, Indigenous people tend to follow the path of addiction to try to heal and forgot about those traumatic events. In a point of fact, says “The roots of addictive behaviours are found in the impacts of this mass psychological trauma and these human rights violations. Unexpressed and unhealed, these impacts have manifested in social disorders. Cultures that had never before seen youth suicide, addictive behaviours, substance abuse, or physical and sexual abuse began a spiral into tragedy.” (p.17) It shows that the healing process that most survivors of residential schools are trying to take is not always the best way. They often fall into addictive behaviours because they cannot find a way to healed themselves from these traumatic experiences. In other words, the residential school syndrome is a mother explanation of why alcohol consumption is still present nowadays among Aboriginal people.

Aboriginal modern populations have a lot of stereotypes concerning alcohol consumption. Now that we know it is not related to genetics, there are still issues regarding alcoholism among these populations. In fact, Statistics Canada says “For those 12 and older, the rate of heavy drinking (five or more drinks on one occasion at least once a month in the 12 months preceding the survey) was 35% for off-reserve First Nations people, 30% for Métis, and 39% for Inuit, compared with 23% for non-Aboriginal people. An estimated 43% of off-reserve First Nations people, 38% of Métis, 40% of Inuit and 36% of non-Aboriginal people aged 12 to 24 reported heavy drinking.” (2012, Table 6) It shows that it is not only a problem among Aboriginal people, but is a big issue since this age category got the highest percentage. Moreover, not only the people who have alcohol addiction think it is a problem in their community, the Indigenous populations also have the same opinion. In fact, Khan says “Around 75% of all residents feel alcohol use is a problem in their community, 33% indicate that it’s a problem in their own family or household and 25% say that they have a personal problem with alcohol.” (p.7) This passage shows that the Indigenous communities are aware of the alcohol abuse problem and that it affects everyone in their surroundings. Indigenous societies are not the only one to have a substance problems, the Canadian population is also affected. In fact, the Public Health agency of Canada says “In 2012, approximately 5 million Canadians (or 18 % of the population) aged 15 years and older met the criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence at some point in their lifetime” ( p.19)  In summary, the modern Aboriginal societies still struggles with alcoholism nowadays and still see it as a an issue as well as affecting the rest of the Canadian population.

Haiti heartquake articles comparison and contrast

In our modern society, everything that happens around the world can be seen and read through media such as television, internet, online newspaper, etc. 10 years ago, Port au Prince was hit by a major earthquake measuring a magnitude of 7.0 out of 10 of the Richter scale. This earthquake had economic and social impacts on Haiti as a whole. This why David Brooks and Alicia Trotz decide to give their opinion on how should he government and the world should have act after the earthquake had happened in Haiti in 2007. In this essay, I will analyze both articles by mentioning what are the authors arguments as well as giving my opinion on each article.

In “The Underlying Tragedy”, Brooks argues that the earthquake in Haiti was the results of a poverty story, not the result of a natural disaster. In fact, he believes that America was hiding some difficult truths which is true in my opinion.Why? Because America says that they are helping countries in the difficulties which is totally untrue. In fact, they are just praying for them to get better and put back their economy on the right track. David Brooks points out that the dollars we are sending to organisms to give aid to reduce poverty is not use as it should be used. In fact, Haiti never received aid and believe it or not, “the world has spent trillions of dollars to generate growth in the developing world.” (Brooks, 1) I agree that the money we give to organisms that argues to fundraised money for developing countries is not well used. Haiti is still in a miserable situation as portrayed in the media, and nobody is doing something significant to help them change their situations. Furthermore, Brooks emphases his opinion on the impact Haiti’s traditionalist culture has on their poverty. In other words,  he says that it is Haiti’s fault for being stuck in the same situation over the years. However, we all know that Haiti is still fighting for the right of freedom. Haiti actually send a message to other countries by having their own views on economical growth. I strongly believes that David Brooks was right most of the time about how the world deal with poverty in countries like Haiti, China, Africa etc. His arguments were well explained and based his arguments on other sources including economist experts.

In “We must stand with Haiti: Solidarity, not Help”, Alissa Trotz argues that “ We must demonstrate our solidarity, and not just in the short-term, when the emergency requirements are so crucial.” (Trotz, 1) She believes that the language of charity is not the right way to provide help to countries in difficulties like Haiti. They need medium to long-term support in her opinion. She also says that charity increase the generosity of the giver in an ironic way when the distance and connection between the giver and the receiver is encouraged. I strongly agree with these statements, because in the past 10 years, nothing has changed about Haiti’s situation. They are still struggling with clean water, food, putting a roof under their heads, reconstruction and most of all, poverty. It is time for us to take the right decisions and act on them. Charity is definitely not the right to help Haiti in their situation. We can’t give up on Haiti because they did not give up during their fight to liberate themselves from 200 years of slavery. They helped us killed slavery and we can’t even help them back. I agree with the fact that Alissa Trotz want us to educate ourselves about Haiti beyond the distortions of the corporate media. We need to go beyond what the media shows us on our laptop, television or cellphone. The more we know about something, the more we can solved the issues in the future if we have to. Disasters are big business as she would say in her article, which is really true. The impact of a natural disaster is huge on the economy and the population which explain why we should change our methods of help.

David Brooks and Alissa Trotz had both very interesting argument about the earthquake that happened in Haiti related to different aspects of it. Brooks concentrated is opinion on how poverty was the main factor of Haiti difficulties today while Trotz would say that charity is not the best way to help countries in difficulties like Haiti. I agree with both authors opinions, but my favourite is David Brooks’ argument. It is true that Haiti has a lot of difficulties because of poverty. The aid provide for poverty is not sufficient enough to really have an impact on Haiti’s situation. This is why I think media are not always a truthful source to look at.We need to go beyond that by looking and making research for ourselves.

False alert shooting in a college in Montreal: Media ethical issues essay

On October 4th 2017, John Abbott went through a media event that involved a number of significant issues. In this case, theological ethics where they look at the consequences of actions, was taken into consideration by the media.(Duncan et al., 233)  The college chose to said nothing because they did not think it would have affect the safety and security of students, staff, faculty and students themselves. By not saying anything, they have avoid spectacle. Moreover, in the Canadian Charters of Rights and Freedoms is also involved where section 7, 8 and 15 are involved in the media event that has affected John Abbott College. In the Chart, these sections guarantee personal safety, the right to protection as well as equality. (Government of Canada, 2017) In this case, the media did a pretty good job with these sections by protecting the identity of the suspect without naming any racial, age, and any other physical characteristics except for his sex. Also, the media did handle a defamation case where they wrote in their paper that the student was suicidal without any proofs. According to the textbook, Defamation is the false comment that harm someone reputation. ( Duncan et al., 219) In fact, only one of his friends told the police that he/she thought he had suicidal thoughts and that they were worried about him. They did not have the consent of the suspect to say that he had suicidal thoughts even it would be true. Moreover, the Police reported to the Montreal Gazette that the school was lockdown and that somebody had a gun in the school. However , according to the updating version, “They were telling people to stay out of their way, but they didn’t tell people to get out,” she said. “I was really angry at the fact that the school was not put on lockdown because if a person is suicidal and armed, they might be mentally ill and you don’t know what is going to happen. There were lots of students around.” (Hore, 2017) In fact, what the Montreal Gazette reported at first was false information which led to an update because it is their mission to tell the truthful information. And also, the suspected was at home unarmed. Plus, the time they took to change the information was long enough to allowed words of mouth between parents, the police of Ste-Anne, and students that the information was actually untrue. The article was published at 11:48 am and updated at 6:35 pm. In addition, categorical imperatives were used pretty accurately by the mass media. According to the textbook, “ This theory holds that virtue results when people identify and apply universal principle.” ( Duncan et al., 233) In this case, the Montreal Gazette did the right thing by not mentioning the identity of the suspect as well as protecting the information of the people that called to say that the college was not lockdown that day. They did what they thought was the right thing to do even if it could have cause defamation towards the young man who could have not had suicidal thoughts. To summarize, the mass media handled pretty well some of the ethical issues regarding the false alert at John Abbott College on October 4th. Even if defamation could have been possible, the media corrected their paper as soon as they learned the information they were given was wrong.

Works Cited

Duncan, B. (2005). Mass media and popular culture. Toronto: Harcourt Canada.

Government of Canada; Canadian Heritage; Communications. (2017, March 15). Your Guide to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from http://canada.pch.gc.ca/eng/1468851006026

Montreal Gazette, Local News. (2017, October 4). False alarm rattles John Abbott College as police respond to report of armed man [Press release]. Retrieved October 12, 2017, from http://montrealgazette.com/news/local-news/no-armed-man-at-john-abbott-college-police-say

Do Not Track documentary critical piece

In the past weeks, a documentary called “Do Not Track” was assigned to us to watch during a dismissed class. This documentary was break down into seven short episodes, each tackling a different issue within the larger context of privacy and the web economy. Whereas the last couple of episodes focused more on tracking and advertisement on the web. (Gaylor, 2015) The main focus of thus documentary was to show us how easy it is for corporate businesses and other websites to track your personal information and geolocation. Because of tracking, we become part of a correlation where all of our informations are placed into data and show you what you like and what you don’t like. Even after watching this video, my online behaviour did not changed that much where I will still go on Facebook, post pictures and stories on Instagram and Snapchat, and also go online to look for informations even if the advertisings show what I like on those sites. Despite the fact that Facebook and Google are making millions and billions of dollars each years from their users informations and data, it would not changed the behaviour of most of the internet users around the world. I did not know that these big corporates business where making money of us and I was surprised to learned how much they made of us just by getting our informations and preferences from what we are watching, writing and buying. For example, I remember seeing all the time Gongshows’ Apparel advertising all the time and I was so excited to those cause it was my favourite clothing shop for hockey. However,  now that I have watched the segment about Facebook , it scared me the most cause I had Facebook for like 8 years now and I have never had an idea of what I was getting into. Tracking is capable of knowing what is your personality profile is and judged how likely you would be able to get health insurance. If your personality is more likely to risk-taker, the chance that you could reach a health insurance is really low and vice versa. (Gaylor, 2015) They don’t ask clearly for your opinion which I found really shocking and unreasonable. There are pirates and hackers all around the world that could have access to our information and geographic localization. Privacy is shown as a very important component in “Do Not Track” where they told people to be more careful about what they shared on the internet because it could have an impact on your life. The episode where the documentary was able to find where I lived really freaked me out at a point where I saw how easy it was to get data.

To conclude, Do Not Track is truly a documentary of the web and for the web. It hits that sweet spot that interactive documentaries are looking for; it wouldn’t be so effective if it was a linear, traditional documentary. The creators have used the platform in an effort for the audience to not only understand, but experience what tracking means: “We want to help you understand the exchange of value when you volunteer information online.  We want you to know when it’s happening without your permission. We want you to be in control, and we want to pique your curiosity.” ( Gaylor, 2015) This documentary was really good and provided some really useful tools for me in the future, but I don’t feel like I would post things I am not supposed to on the internet which will not affect my behaviour on the internet in any ways. However, I learned that I should really be careful anyway on which websites I am sharing my informations with and also to consider all the policies when I agree with something on the internet such as websites policies and all those kind of things.

Works Cited

Gaylor, Brett, director. Do Not Track. Do Not Track, National Film Board of Canada, 2015.